Mongoose that (Ko)Koa!

Ya know, I got thinking about this whole series about kokoa, whether it’s even needed – anyone can easily get kokoa docs, get router, write some code and get himself functional server. Why write tutorials? What is the meaning of life? Etc.
In short, that’s the basic problem, I’m hesitant to check how many valid and usefull kokoa tutorials are outie there, why write another one? What do I bring to the table? They all are identical, semantics change but ultimately you get to get data and return data, and the way it happes usually goes same every time, small semantic alterations aside. But yah, I’ll continue this BS for some time more, spyce it up with ~basic~ boring mongoose observation and simple passport authentication and.. dunno, I guess that’ll be the finish of shortlived and useless series. Anyho, have thee fun.

So, we’ll start of as ussl, by installing some new shiet, snakey-related of nature this time:

yarn add mongoose

an hour later

And then I went into doing all the work. Yah.. it was actually fun, mongoose is strange but it has interesting capabilities that monk ignored, and I’ve approached it with prototype-oriented mindset (which affected overal impression). Such tho, where do we start describing another monstosity I’ve created?

I guess since I’ve decided to introduce our little friend, a bit of examination is required:

Mongoose is kinda strongly ~typed~ Schema-ed MongoDB adapter. Which brings both pain and joy, just like everything else in life. Let’s start with painful:

  1. Your flexibility on what you put in gets theoretically a bit limited (I haven’t throughly checked whether mongoose allows saving and getting non Schema-defined fields or temporary\dynamic variation of Schema\Model)
  2. There’s now a bunch more stuff to take care of – instead of Collection.find({ xxx: true }) we have new Model( new Schema({ xxx: Boolean, stuff: { type: string, required: true }}) ).find({ xxx: true }),
  3. And bunch of classes to get: Model which invokes Query which returns Document(s) sometimes “skipping” Query alltogether, and which (Model) is created from Schema. They obviously have their respective places, but it took me good 15 minutes to grasp whole concept and that Model returns Query, just in case we’ll want to adjust it with filters\aggregations and likes, which resolves into Document(s?) on final such adjustment, this is cool, but takes time to adjust
  4. Incomplete validation logic, in first ~half an hour working with mongoose I noticed that it lacks unique validation – I get it, mongoose doesn’t want to query mongo on each validation, but they still throw Mongo adapter’s error instead of handling it in their usual way. They even state that they don’t support it and it is expected behaviour, but, problem persists and you either solve it via plugins, live with it or just don’t bother
  5. append Map type doesn’t seem to validate correctly as it seems of mongoose@5.3.15 (declaring of as { type: String, match: /abc/ } doesn’t throw no matter what pattern or input used)

Still, those pains (except for 5th one and probably 4th one, I would guess) are expected, since mongoose is geared towards robust and strict environment where it’s not that problematic to have boilerplate code in project whose only purpose is to protect codebase from accidental and avoidable errors.

And now we can go into the pleasant part:

  1. Not exactly for my taste, but typed Schema is a boon – you know what each field should be (this kinda heavily calls for introducting of TypeScript)
  2. Stemming from previous – typed Schema allows for proper strraightforward validation logic – you have built-ins for base types: enum, minlength, maxlength and importantly match just for Strings, which already allows to extend it to custom types like URLString, etc.
  3. Stemming even further – now you have two separate steps (which are handled ~automatically): validation and saving to db (not counting unique ~problem~ gotcha mentioned, which kinda ruins it, yah)
  4. Innate separation of concerns is much higher than monk‘s, where you can do same thing, but here it is mostly (at least mentally) enforced (cause you’ll probably be fucked otherwise)

I’ll update both lists need be, but that’s all I can find right now.

Now the interesting part, would I go back to being monk? Probably. They are different and their goals are different. Monk is versatile multi-tool that you can do anything with, while mongoose is very good hammer, you can hit nails very good, but when you try different approaches you’ll start having a hammer time.
(By the by, above is few hour’s experience and expectations BS)

But, theories aside, let’s delve into code, how does our route look like now?

const User = require('../../../model/user')

let api = new Router()

api.get('/user', async ctx => {
    ctx.body = await User.find()

api.get('/user/:id', async ctx => {
    let user = await User.findOne(
    if (user)
        ctx.body = user
})'/user', async ctx => {
    let data = ctx.request.body
    let user = await User.insertOne(data)
    ctx.body = user

As I’ve said – it still looks mostly same. Which is of no surprise – all our API does right now is serves data almost directly from DB. Things will get a bit more interesting with authentication, but even then modern practises, middleware and nesting ruin all fun -> we attach authentication middleware, set some routes as guarded and voila, nothing changed, and we just expect to get only authorized requests on some routes.

Still, we’ve swaped our boring arrays to some User from .../model, what is it?

const BaseModel = require('./base')

const roles = [
    'supa-pipik', //super-admin, duh
    'pipik', // admin
    'pipiker', // follower

const urlStringType = {
    type: String,
    match: /^https?:\/\/[^.]*\.[^.]*$/

const UserSchema = new mongoose.Schema({
    name: { type: String, required: true, unique: true },
    role: { type: String, enum: roles },
    _accessLevel: { type: Number, min: -99, max: 99 },
    social: { type: Map, of: urlStringType }, // which doesn't seem to be validating

UserSchema.index({ name: 1 }, { unique: true, name: 'uniq names' })

class User extends BaseModel {
    constructor () {
        super('user', UserSchema)
        this.roles = roles
    find (conditions = {},
        projection = {
            name: true,
            social: true,
        }, options = {

        }) {
        return this.model.find(conditions, projection, options)

module.exports = new User()

Which is an instance of our exended ES6 class User! Yay! So many new words.

Which means we’ve exported instantiated (and most probably duped for every require, I should really check up on that) Object of User ~prototype~ “class” which inherits an amount of stuff from BaseModel, which I’ll show it a bit later, let’s first dissect current bad boy:

  • 3-11: is an array of our roles, which we use as enum validator for mongoose, and share it through model (User) in case we need to provide it somewhere in our app (line #30),
  • 13-16: unsuccessful attempt to create validation for Map values, as I’ve appended earlier – mongoose doesn’t seem to be capable of that right now,
  • 18-23: the Schema! which is kind of pretty simple: you have field as key and type as value, optionally as object with key type in case you want options and validators,
  • 25: this should be automatic because of unique option in name’s field type definition, but I haven’t seen any index created so I’m not exactly sure how mongoose handles it as of now, I’ll check it out later,
  • **27-48*: our class! yay!
    • 28-31: constructor, which invokes BaseModel‘s constructor via super() (which basically translates into something along lines of this = new BaseModel(), but much prettier and, I hope, robust); and then we just attach roles to our User model,
    • 32-40: the definition of PENDING_REMOVAL, basically .find() states defaults to apply projection to mongoose.Model.find call, but this implementation takes 8 lines to just default projection AND calls model directly, which is fine now, but when we’ll, hopefully, start to implement error and validation logic, we would have to duplicate all that common code, which is utter bs (so we have to, I assume, pass default projection to super() and let it handle it, together with mongoose.model operations, unless we need some specific method with some specific predefined arguments, which is highly unprobable),
  • 43: export, which probably instantiates new User each require (but it doesn’t seem to be from my testing, surprising I must say). Instantiation on export is needed to exactly avoid duplicate models across different require-s – we need only one Model to interact with DB, and I don’t see any reasons to dupe them

Well, phew. There’s not a lot of complex stuff going on, but most important for User are Schema + roles, most other stuff is handled by BaseModel. Talking about:

const connect = require('./connection')
var connection = null
const connect = () => {
    if (!connection){
        connection = mongoose
            .connect('mongodb://localhost:27017/Anipipik', {
                useNewUrlParser: true
    return connection

class BaseModel {
    constructor (name, Schema) {
        // if ( === BaseModel)
        //  throw new Error ('BaseModel is abstract')

        this.connection = connect().then(a => this.connection = a)
        this.model = mongoose.model(name, Schema) = name
        this.Schema = Schema

        return this
    findOne (id) {
        const doc = this.model.findById(id)
        return doc
    async insertOne (document) {
        let doc = new this.model(document)
        let result = await doc.validate().then(() =>
            .catch(err => console.error(err) || ({
                error: true, details: err
        return result
    find () {
        return this.model.find(...arguments)

module.exports = BaseModel

So simple (and there’s even a find already that we should kick out of User). So remember that User calls super with its name and Schema? They go right into BaseModel constructor, get created as mongoose.model and are attached to this together with name and Schema, which is then attached back to User (technically BaseModel too, but it’s not supposed to be called by itself, and there’s even a foolproof to implement, checkout this SO for more info, it kinda makes BaseModel an abstract class – template for other classes to inherit, so to speak)

Thinking of which at later date – BaseModel isn’t abstract, it’s common class (which are kinda same) – you can instantiate common model with provided Schema for, let’s say, temporary date that should be cleaned up afterwards. It’s a stretch, I know, but it can be used for an amount of data where we don’t really need any additional logic – like User right now, if we count roles out.

Another note is this.connection – it’s a side effect of mongoose – it can instantiate models, run queries, etc, without connecting to DB, all interactions just get batched and are finally released once we have established connection. That’s why we need to instantiate connection somewhere, since we’re going to need it once we have our models up and running, it seems a pretty nice place.

But, if we create new connection on each new Model created, it can easily lead to unpredictable behaviour and, again, multiple points to handle errors-etc.

Which is why we have connection creator – it’s keeping reference to connection and passes function to get reference to it as require-able function. I’m not exactly sure whether it’s the most appropriate pattern for such use-case, but it works fine for now, and I’m too lazy to verify.

Other than that, BaseModel just serves as mongoose wrapper – creates models out of schema, wraps mongoose’s DB accessors (find, insert, etc), and later on should serve as common grounds for more complex queries, projection handling and error reporting, among some other possible stuffs.

At which point we could conclude our dip into mongoose grounds, but it has another very neat (I hope) feature – populate-ing Documents based on Schema references. So that’s what I’m gonna do:

const UserType = { type: mongoose.Schema.ObjectId, ref:}

const TitleSchema = new mongoose.Schema({
    name: { type: String, required: true },
    date_aired: Date,
    episodes: [{
        name: String,
        number: { type: Number, min: 1 },
        video_iframe: urlStringType,
        video_url: urlStringType,
        date_aired: Date,
        date_voiced: Date,
        uploaded_by: UserType
    voicers: [UserType],

Since we don’t yet have any special alterations to Title, no reason to include anything other than Schema.

Our main attraction is on line 1: ref: (and reason why we attach model name to its instance), which makes mongoose to keep in memory that anything (in our case ObjectId) stored in Title collection voicers array should bind to entries in collection. (You should substitue collection to mongoose.model, but most often they are synonyms)

Surprisingly and simply it allows us just to change retrieving code from await Title.find({}) to await Title.find({}).populate('voicers') and voila, now we have whole User data in place of _id. If the data is in respective collection, otherwise it’s kinda null, or more like an empty result without even stored id, so be carefull deleting related data.

Also, I doubt that mongoose handle any SQL-like constraints logic so you’ll have to clean up by yourself.

I’ve took a long 15 minute look through mongoose doc on populate and while I’ve found a lot of interesting use cases, there’s nothing about constraints and auto-cleanup.

And I must say even with its crooks, I do like the “magic” mongoose provides. In short later we’ll probably take a look at multiple populate-ions (populating multiple fields), dynamic references (populate-ing based on user-defined values), and virtual references (“liquid” fields that exists only after population based on logical querying (?))

Ah, good relational times.

On this nostalgic note we finally finish up, we’ll be covering some nooks and cranks of mongoose at a bit later date, and nuxt time we’ll be setting up our basic admin interface (probably in-page) on Nuxt-Vue, cause writing templates in ES6(7?) syntax is cool, but sucks a load whatever anyone can say.

Code as ussl available at git.

nil commento load